Ingredient Allocation is a term used to describe a method of formulation or ingredient evaluation that is based on multiple formulation. This paper seeks to describe the principles of multiple product formulation and then will show two exercises. The first will be to show how multiple formulations can be used to save ingredient cost, and then to demonstrate the comparison of two ingredients against each other on a n economic and technical basis.
Formulating to meet a specific set of nutrient requirements, in an attempt to ensure maximum performance of a particular class of poultry, is the aim of the poultry nutritionist. However, there are many factors to consider when formulating diets, and in feeding poultry, which would counter the belief of many producers, that purchasing a diet, calculated to meet the nutrient requirements of the birds in question, is a guarantee for a high performance flock.
Over the past several decades, the poultry industry has moved from formulation of diets based on a crude protein basis to a least-cost and total amino acid (AA) basis, in part due to the introduction of affordable computing power. More recently, the industry has begun to switch to newer concepts that may prove cost effective. These include digestible formulation, precision feeding, ideal proteins, modeling. All concepts that have been presented to the poultry industry and have been adopted world wide to some extent. As we look at the industry, we see the entire gambit of methods to provide a nutritional regimen to poultry. In some parts of the world, nutritionists will still use the old Pearson Square as a diet formulation tool and most will formulate on a crude protein basis. In the undergraduate Monogastric Nutrition class I teach, we use the hand calculation method at the beginning of the semester to give them an appreciation for the professional computer formulation package they will use during the rest of the class to formulate far more complex rations based on total amino acids, digestible amino acids and ideal protein ratios. While the industry in the U.S. and much of the world has made the switch to computer formulation, the switch to what may be referred to as more advanced formulation methods has been a bit spottier. A solid percentage of the birds now being fed are using digestible amino acid formulation. We¡ãOll look at some of the arguments for making the switch to mor advanced formulation methods, show several ways to make the switch and look at factors that affect digestibility and how to maintain a database on feed ingredients.
Phosphorus is a mineral that is essential to growth and development. Cereal grains and oil seeds contain substantial quantities of phosphorus, however up to 80% of the phosphorus is present as phytic acid. This poses a problem to monogastric animals because they do not produce sufficient amounts of intrinsic phytases necessary to hydrolyze the phytic acid complex. Because monogastric diets are mainly comprised of feedstuffs that have low phosphorus availabilities, phosphorus supplementation from inorganic sources is necessary in order to obtain optimal animal performance.